Fertility issues in the horse can stem from multiple causes. One cause in mares is due to a disorder of sexual development (DSD) whereby the sex chromosome complement (genotype, or genetic code) is abnormal and does not agree with the external appearance of the horse (phenotype, or observable characteristics).
The diagnosis and treatment of chronically infertile mares is a complex process. Practitioners should utilize the available diagnostics, including cultures and cytology, along with endoscopy, to root out the myriad causes of this problem and increase
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