The International Collating Centre, in Newmarket, United Kingdom, and other sources reported the following disease outbreaks in the first quarter of 2017.
African horse sickness was confirmed in all provinces in South Africa except in those of the Eastern Cape and Western Cape. Frequency of the disease was as expected for this period of the year.
Equine Influenza was reported in the United Kingdom and the United States. An isolated outbreak was recorded in the UK whereas outbreaks of the disease were confirmed in four U.S. states, where equine influenza is considered endemic.
Denmark, France, Germany, South Africa, Switzerland, and the United States reported outbreaks of strangles. The number of confirmed disease events include one in Denmark, 21 in France (mostly isolated cases of the disease), single cases on five premises in Germany, sporadic cases in South Africa in which the disease is endemic, an isolated case in Switzerland, and 58 outbreaks in 22 states in the United States, in which the disease is endemic.
Diseases related to equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) were recorded in France, Germany, Ireland, Japan, the UK, and the United States. Respiratory disease was diagnosed in France (three outbreaks), Germany (two outbreaks), Ireland (six outbreaks), the UK (two outbreaks) and the United States (widespread in numerous states). Cases of EHV-1 abortion were confirmed in France (seven outbreaks), Germany (single cases on four premises), the UK (single cases on three premises), and the United States (four cases on individual farms). EHV-1 neurologic disease was recorded in France (a single case), the UK (a single case), and the United States (four outbreaks, one involving eight cases).
Respiratory disease die to EHV-4 was reported by France (eight outbreaks, mostly single cases of the disease), Germany (six cases on four premises), and the UK (a single case). EHV-4 was established as a cause of sporadic abortions in France and the UK. Infection with EHV-2 and/or -5 was confirmed in a number of states in the United States, some associated with evidence of respiratory disease.
Two cases of equine adenovirus infection were diagnosed in Kentucky.
Canada, Germany, and the United States confirmed outbreaks of equine infectious anemia. The number of cases included 10 in Canada (of which four were epidemiologically linked to a common source), three in Germany (all on the same premises), and two on a premises in Illinois.
Equine piroplasmosis was reported by France (where the disease is endemic), South Korea (a single case of Theileria equi infection), and the United States (two cases of T. equi infection in Texas, both linked to a cluster detected in early 2016, and an isolated case in an imported horse in Florida).
Germany, South Africa, and South Korea recorded cases of contagious equine metritis. Eight cases infolcing six premises were confirmed in Germany, a single case in a stallion in South Africa, and 20 cases of 2,086 horses surveyed were positive in South Korea.
A single case of equine coital exanthema (EHV-3) was confirmed in Kentucky.
The United States reported 11 cases of nocardioform placentitis and abortion in Kentucky, which were associated with Amycolatopis and/or Crossiella spp infection.
Equine arteritis virus was detected in frozen semen during pre-entry quarantine by Argentina.
The United States reported a limited number of cases of salmonellosis, some due to serogroup B and others serogroup C Salmonellae.
Clostridial enteritis in foal was recorded by the United States. Some were caused by C. difficile Type A toxin genotype or Type B toxin genotype, other by C. perfringens Type A genotype. Isolated cases of C. piliformis (Tyzzer’s disease) and C. novyi were also confirmed.
Two cases of coronavirus were also recorded in the United States, neither life-threatening.
Several cases of equine proliferative enteropathy in foals were diagnosed in Kentucky and Pennsylvania.
South Africa reported a reduced incidence of equine encephalosis, mostly in Gauteng and Mpumalanga provinces compared to previous years. Cases of West Nile (22) and Middelburg virus (30) were detected across South Africa, mostly in Gauteng Province.