Breeding horses is a precarious business at best. Despite great strides in research, conception rates overall are not high. Some researchers place them as low as 55-60% of all mares bred. In many cases, blame is placed on the mare. She is too old, she has uterine cysts, scar tissue, abnormal perineal conformation, a malfunctioning endocrine system–and the list goes on. However, it takes two to reproduce, and there are times when the problem can lie with the stallion. Before we can discuss what those problems might be, or what is involved in getting maximum reproductive efficiency from a stallion, we must understand the unique anatomy and physiology of the unaltered equine male. Only then can we understand wh

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