Humans, other primates, and even dogs share a common feature: We express ourselves, including our physical pain, through our faces. Horses, maybe not so much. At least not in a way researchers have quantified until recently.
To investigate, researchers in Italy, Germany, and the United Kingdom worked together to develop and test a standardized pain scale based on equine facial expressions. Michela Minero, DVM, PhD, ECVBM-CA, presented the study results at the 2013 International Society for Equitation Science, held at the University of Delaware in Newark. The study was published March 19 in the open-access journal PLoS
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