Becoming familiar with the range of normal venograms is difficult, but it is more difficult to become accustomed to artifacts that are induced by incorrect techniques. This presentation will attempt to discuss interpreting changes present on venograms. We will also review common findings of the pathologic foot.

Consistency in procedure is the key to quality venograms! Changes in procedure usually result in artifacts or poor quality venograms. If you do every venogram the same way every time, you will gain a large amount of information. More importantly, following a consistent procedure allows you to compare venograms in order to assess progress or lack of progress resulting from your treatment.

Normal Variations

Because heel perfusion results from multiple sources and is palmar in origin, pathologic conditions of the foot seldom affect the appearance of heel vasculature. However, lateral radiographs will show compromised bloodflow to a normal heel loaded by wedge pads. Raising the heel ten degrees significantly reduces the vascular fill in the palmar vessels and compresses the frog and sole papillae. The circumflex vessels, dorsal lamellae, coronary plexus, and terminal arch appear normal when a normal foot is elevated with heel wedge pads.

Medial/lateral imbalance of the foot is apparent on the DP view. Horses with a jammed (proximally displaced) medial coronary band often have reduced fill on the medial coronary plexus when compared to the lateral plexus. This effect is exaggerated when a foot is wedged medially or laterally.

Papillae extending into the solar corium are often n