A growing number of nonveterinary health-care providers (NVHCP) have entered the equine market in fields such as dentistry, acupuncture, and chiropractic in recent years, bringing veterinary regulation issues to the forefront of political debate and legal actions.

As a licensed profession in the United States, veterinary medicine is subject to definition and regulation at the state government level. But which procedures constitute “veterinary services” varies from state to state, and conflict arises when regulations are unclear regarding which personnel may practice certain procedures or when individuals skirt those regulations for financial gain. At the 2012 American Association of Equine Practitioners’ Convention, held Dec. 1-5 in Anaheim, Calif. Stephen Galloway, DVM, a member of the Tennessee’s Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners, presented an overview of veterinary regulation in the United States.

Each state’s board of veterinary medical examiners (BVME) regulates veterinary licensure. As Galloway pointed out, these bodies are consumer protection boards whose purpose is to regulate the product (quality veterinary services) provided to the public to ensure public and animal welfare and safety; they do not exist to protect or promote the veterinary profession. The BVMEs operate under and enforce each state’s Veterinary Practice Act (VPA), which specifically includes or excludes practices as falling within the scope of veterinary medicine. These regulated practices vary from state to state.

Galloway addressed the levels of professional regulation—licensing, certification, and registration—and descr