Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC) officials have confirmed four cases of equine infectious anemia (EIA) in the state: two in Harris County, one in Ector County, and one in Johnson County. All cases involved Quarter Horses.
All premises involved are under official quarantine until TAHC’s requirements have been met. TAHC staff continue to work with owners and attending veterinarians to monitor horses that were potentially exposed, and to enact enhanced biosecurity protocols.
Equine infectious anemia is a viral disease that attacks horses’ immune systems. The virus is transmitted through the exchange of body fluids from an infected to an uninfected animal, often by blood-feeding insects such as horseflies. It can also be transmitted through the use of blood-contaminated instruments or needles.
A Coggins test screens horses’ blood for antibodies that are indicative of the presence of the EIA virus. Most U.S. states require horses to have proof of a negative Coggins test to travel across state lines.
Once an animal is infected with EIA, it is infected for life and can be a reservoir for the spread of disease. Not all horses show signs of disease, but those that do can exhibit:
- Progressive condition loss;
- Muscle weakness;
- Poor stamina;
- Depression; and
EIA has no vaccine and no cure. A horse diagnosed with the disease dies, is euthanized, or must be placed under extremely strict quarantine conditions (at least 200 yards away from unaffected equids) for the rest of his life.