California Confirms Two EHV-1 Cases in San Bernardino County
On Mar. 16, officials at the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) confirmed a 10-year-old Arabian gelding at a private facility in San Bernardino County with equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1), non-neuropathogenic strain.

The gelding, which displayed neurological signs, is reported as alive and under veterinary care.

Another horse on the property also showed neurological signs and tested positive, and was euthanized due to the severity of its disease.

After CDFA staff assessed the horses’ home property, 22 potentially exposed equines were quarantined, with enhanced biosecurity measures and twice-daily temperature monitoring enacted.

No recent movement on or off the premises had taken place, and these cases aren’t known to be linked to any other EHV-1 cases.

EHV 101

Herpesvirus is highly contagious among horses and can cause a variety of ailments in equids, including rhinopneumonitis (a respiratory disease usually found in young horses), abortion in broodmares, and equine herpesvirus myeloencephalitis (EHM, the neurologic form).

In many horses, the first or only sign of EHV-1 infection is fever, which can go undetected. In addition to fever, other common signs of EHV-1 infection in young horses include cough, decreased appetite, depression, and a nasal discharge. Pregnant mares typically show no signs of infection before they abort, and abortions usually occur late in gestation (around eight months) but can be earlier. Abortions can occur anywhere from two weeks to several months following infection with EHV-1.

Horses with EHM usually have a fever at the onset of the disease and might show signs of a respiratory infection. A few days later, neurologic signs such as ataxia (incoordination), weakness or paralysis of the fore- and hind limbs, urine retention and dribbling, loss of tail tone, and recumbency (inability to rise) develop.

Herpesvirus is easily spread by nose-to-nose or close contact with an infectious horse; sharing contaminated equipment including bits, buckets, and towels; or clothing, hands, or equipment of people who have recently had contact with an infectious horse. Routine biosecurity measures, including hygiene and basic cleaning and disinfection practices, should be in place at all times to help prevent disease spread.

Current EHV-1 vaccines might reduce viral shedding but are not protective against the neurologic form of the disease. Implementing routine biosecurity practices is the best way to minimize viral spread, and the best method of disease control is disease prevention.