Caring for Pregnant Mares and Foals

Knowing what to expect and when to call your veterinarian during pregnancy and foaling will help reduce the risk of complications.

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mare and newborn foal
A large, clean stall with straw bedding is ideal for foaling. | Anne M. Eberhardt/The Horse
On average, a mare’s pregnancy lasts 338 to 343 days. Some preparation on your part can help ensure a healthy pregnancy and delivery.

During a mare’s pregnancy, moderate exercise such as riding or vigorous walking will help control her weight and maintain the muscle tone and strength needed for the last two months of pregnancy.

To maintain a mare’s body condition, feed her a high-quality forage diet using the same pre-pregnancy amounts with an increase in energy as pregnancy demands increase. In cold weather, consider the extra requirements needed to maintain body condition, and adjust her ration accordingly. As with all animals, she should always have plenty of clean, fresh water.

Work with your veterinarian to establish a safe and effective deworming schedule. Deworm the mare within several weeks of foaling to prevent her from infecting her foal with parasites. Vaccinations should be current because infectious diseases can trigger abortions. Again, consult your veterinarian for your specific scenario, as mares in crowded boarding stables have different requirements than solitary mares on pasture. Boosters for selected vaccines should be administered one month prior to foaling to increase antibody levels in the mare’s colostrum (first milk), which in turn, will help protect the newborn foal from disease.

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There are a few causes of abnormally long pregnancies that should be investigated. If a mare’s pregnancy extends past 360 days, your veterinarian should examine her to determine if she is still pregnant and confirm that mare and foal are healthy. As with human babies, an ultrasound can help your veterinarian assess the viability of the unborn foal. Also, the degree of fetal maturity can be assessed by checking calcium levels in the mare’s colostrum.

When to call your veterinarian during pregnancy:

  • If your mare starts to drip milk before 320 days of pregnancy.
  • If your mare does not have a filling udder within one week of her due date.
  • If the mare runs milk consistently prior to foaling for more than three to four days.
  • If heavy labor (pushing) persists for 20 minutes without any sign of the foal protruding from the vulva.

Preparing the Mare for Foaling

Foaling season can be both an exciting and anxious time, but rest assured, nature has developed a wonderful system of birth in the mare. Mares seem to have some control over their delivery and prefer to foal in privacy at night. Because the uterus determines the size of the foal, with the exception of Miniature Horses, mares usually do not have complications from a foal that is too large.

Unlike cattle, mares have a lower occurrence of difficult deliveries. While foaling is usually problem-free, malpositioned foals or other complications can occur, so be sure to have your veterinarian’s telephone number handy. Your mare will need a clean, safe, and quiet place to foal. If the weather is good, a clean pasture is a great option. If not, she will need a stall large enough to freely lie down with room on all sides. Avoid a situation where the mare or her foal are forced into a corner or up against a wall during delivery.

If available, use a stall with a floor that can be easily cleaned and disinfected. After a thorough cleaning, a 10% solution of regular bleach and water can be sprayed on the floor and walls to disinfect them. Clean, bright straw or clean grass hay for bedding is preferable to shavings. It is less dusty and won’t cling to the wet newborn or mare like small wood particles will. Also, wood shavings can be a source of germs and toxins. Always keep the stall well-ventilated and clean.

When to call your veterinarian during foaling:

  • If heavy labor (pushing) persists for 20 minutes without any sign of the foal protruding from the vulva.
  • If the feet are presented with the soles up—front feet and nose should come first.
  • An emergency note: Premature placental separation or “red bag” requires immediate attention. If the bag protruding from your mare’s vulva, covering the foal’s feet, is velvety red instead of milky white, break (tear or safely cut) the bag immediately and assist in delivering the foal or it will suffocate within minutes. Call your veterinarian once the foal is delivered.

Caring for the Newborn Foal

It is vitally important that the foal nurses colostrum within the first 12 hours of life. Colostrum is extremely rich in antibodies that help prevent disease in the foal until its own immune system kicks in, especially if the mare was vaccinated appropriately. Without adequate colostrum, the foal is at an increased risk of infections. Your veterinarian can test the colostrum to determine if it is rich in antibodies.

The foal’s serum can be tested at 18 to 24 hours of age to evaluate IgG (immunoglobin) antibody levels. If its concentration of IgG is inadequate, specially prepared serum can be given intravenously or the foal can receive a dose of colostrum from a tested resident mare. If given before 24 hours of age, this could increase the foal’s chance of survival.

About 24 hours after birth, your veterinarian should examine the mare, foal, and placenta for any signs of abnormalities.

When to call your veterinarian after delivery:

  • If the placenta is not eliminated within three to six hours of foaling.
  • If the foal does not rise within one hour of birth, nurse within two to three hours of birth, or pass the meconium (first stool) within one hour after rising and receiving an enema.


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