The unvaccinated 13-year-old Standardbred mare exhibited neurologic signs and was euthanized on Aug. 13. Test results confirmed she was EEE-positive on August 19. Her signs included ataxia, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), fever, recumbency (down and unable to rise), and seizures.
“EEE is fatal in more than 90% of cases, yet it’s preventable through vaccination,” said Julie McGwin, DVM, equine program manager for the Division of Animal Health at WDATCP. “If your horse is showing neurological signs, contact your veterinarian for a diagnosis.
“Symptoms of EEE are similar to other diseases such as rabies, which is fatal in humans if not treated immediately,” she added. “EEE is based on mosquito populations, and while people cannot get EEE from horses, mosquitoes can transmit EEE to both horses and people.”
Eastern equine encephalomyelitis is caused by the Eastern equine encephalitis virus, for which wild birds are a natural reservoir. Mosquitoes that feed on EEE-infected birds can transmit the virus to humans, horses, and other birds. Horses do not develop high enough levels of these viruses in their blood to be contagious to other animals or humans. Because of the high mortality rate in horses and humans, EEE is regarded as one of the most serious mosquito-borne diseases in the United States.
Tips for preventing mosquito-borne diseases include:
- Avoid mosquito bites: Use insect repellent when outdoors, especially from dusk to dawn.
- Look for EPA-labeled products containing active ingredients such as DEET, picaridin (KBR3023), or oil of lemon eucalyptus (p-menthane 3,8-diol).
- Apply more repellent, according to label instructions, if mosquitoes start to bite.
- Mosquito-proof homes: Fix or install window and door screens, and cover or eliminate empty containers with standing water where mosquitoes can lay eggs.
- Protect your horses: Veterinarians recommend commercially available licensed vaccines against EEE for all horses in the United States. Horses should be vaccinated at least annually (recommendations vary in high-risk areas). It’s not too late this year to vaccinate your horses.
- Use approved insect repellents to protect horses.
- If possible, put horses in stables, stalls, or barns during the prime mosquito exposure hours of dusk and dawn.
- Eliminate standing water, drain water troughs, and empty buckets at least weekly.
- Stock water tanks with fish that consume mosquito larvae (contact your local mosquito control for assistance), or use mosquito “dunks” (solid “donuts” of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis [BTi], which are nontoxic to horses) available at hardware stores.