On Nov. 1, California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) officials released the quarantine on a Shasta County premises where two horses had been confirmed positive for the neurologic form of equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) in early October.
Two additional horses tested positive for the virus:
- Case No. 3 from a different Shasta County premises that traveled in the same trailer as case No. 1 to an event at the Rolling Hills Equestrian Center, in Corning, California, on Sept. 27-29; and
- Case No. 4, from Sonoma County, who also participated in the event at Rolling Hills Equestrian Center.
The CDFA monitored all four horses, and on Oct. 24 the index horse on the quarantined Shasta County premises, a 20-year-old Quarter Horse gelding, had his second negative test at seven-day intervals. On Nov. 1, case No. 2 also had its second negative test at seven-day intervals.
No EHV quarantines now exist in Shasta County.
Equine his highly contagious among horses and can cause a variety of ailments in equids, including rhinopneumonitis (a respiratory disease usually found in young horses), abortion in broodmares, and equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM, the neurologic form).
In many horses, the first or only sign of EHV-1 infection is fever, which can go undetected. In addition to fever, other common signs of EHV-1 infection in young horses include cough, decreased appetite, depression, and a nasal discharge. Pregnant mares typically show no signs of infection before they abort, and abortions usually occur late in gestation (around eight months) but can be earlier. Abortions can occur anywhere from two weeks to several months following infection with EHV-1.
Horses with the neurologic form usually have a fever at the onset of the disease and might show signs of a respiratory infection. A few days later, neurologic signs such as ataxia (incoordination), weakness or paralysis of the fore- and hind limbs, urine retention and dribbling, loss of tail tone, and recumbency (inability to rise) develop.
Herpesvirus is easily spread by nose-to-nose or close contact with an infectious horse; sharing contaminated equipment including bits, buckets, and towels; or clothing, hands, or equipment of people who have recently had contact with an infectious horse. Routine biosecurity measures, including hygiene and basic cleaning and disinfection practices, should be in place at all times to help prevent disease spread.
Current EHV-1 vaccines might reduce viral shedding but are not protective against the neurologic form of the disease. Implementing routine biosecurity practices is the best way to minimize viral spread, and the best method of disease control is disease prevention.